Essential Minerals in Food...
Natural is Better

Minerals:  Essential Nutrients
And Building Blocks of Life

Nutritional minerals in food are elements, also known as atoms, and you can find them in the Periodic Table of the Elements (below).

Elements are made up of protons and neutrons that reside in a central nucleus. They also have electrons that orbit the nucleus in shells similar to the layers of an onion; also kind of like satellites that orbit the earth at different altitudes.  

The number of electrons in the outermost orbit of the atom is what determines how stable they are and how they combine with other atoms to form compounds.

A calcium atom has 20 protons which is what makes it calcium.  Similarly oxygen's 8 protons and carbons 6 protons is what gives them their unique identity.  The number of protons in an atomic nucleus is what determines the element.    

Vitamins are not elements, they are compounds; meaning they are made up of a collection of different atoms.  For example, vitamin C is made up of 8 hydrogen atoms, 6 oxygen atoms and 6 carbon atoms.

Periodic table of the elements, Wikipedia image

The Periodic Table is called "periodic" because it is laid out to demonstrate the recurring ("periodic") chemical properties of the elements. They are listed in order of increasing atomic number; that is, the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Each row is arranged so that elements with similar properties fall into the same vertical columns. According to quantum mechanical theories of electron configuration within atoms, each horizontal row ("period") in the table corresponds to the filling of a quantum shell of electrons (remember the layers in the onion skin?).

In printed tables, each element is usually listed with its element symbol and atomic number and to date, there are 117 chemical elements whose discoveries have been confirmed. 

Now that we have the nuclear physics out of the way, let’s look at these essential minerals in terms of essential nutrients.

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Essential Minerals in Food Rock!

The thing about minerals is that no matter how small they are, they're still rocks.  Ever heard of "colloidal minerals"?  That's a neat sounding phrase for "rocks" in solution; if you make it thick enough, some might call it mud.

The human body doesn't absorb rocks very well so it is preferable to get our minerals in food, and vitamins too, for that matter. It is best to get them in their natural state from plants (with a few exceptions).
 
In the case of supplements, plant sourced natural vitamins and minerals are absorbed best. Synthetics are unnatural; plant sourced nutrients are natural. Actually the science of mineral absorption goes quite deep.  So if we are supposed to get our minerals in food, why supplement...

What Happened to the Minerals in Food?

Why would a mineral be missing in our food?  The content of minerals in food depends on the mineral content of the soil on which the plant grew and an adequate supply of water for those plants. 

Plant absorption of minerals is greatly affected by water.  Animals graze on plants or are given plant feedstock and the mineral content in beef, poultry, pork, or dairy products depends on the mineral content of their food. 

Both vitamin and mineral content of foods can be degraded through long transportation times, processing with heat or chemicals, early harvesting, depleted soil, drought or inadequate irrigation and handling.

Considering absorption, our bodies don't automatically absorb everything we swallow.  There are several synergistic relationships to be aware of. 

Many minerals only get absorbed if other minerals or vitamins are present.  On the other hand the presence of some nutrients may retard the absorption of dietary minerals in our body.  Where appropriate, these special situations will be presented.

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Ions, not Atoms!

The term "mineral" is obsolete and misleading since what the body is looking for, is an ion of the mineral.  Minerals in food are absorbed in their ionic form. 

An ion is an atom that has gained or lost one or more of its orbiting electrons thus giving it a positive or negative electrical charge.  The charge is what aids absorption of minerals. 

The literature refers to minerals in food as being "anions" or "cations" and both refer to the charge.  An anion has more electrons and thus has a negative charge; a cation has fewer electrons and is thus positively charged. So far, so good.

Finally, The Essential Minerals in Food!

There are 12 essential minerals that we know the body needs to stay alive and functional.  There is another 7 that we think are important to human life but the proof has not been firmly established. 

As with vitamins, minerals have very specific and well defined multiple roles to play in the workings of our body.  Just from TV commercials, we should all be somewhat familiar with calcium or at least its effects if we don't get enough.

Three Classifications of Minerals in Food

Minerals in food that are used by the human body for nutrition can be classified into three groups. 

The first is six minerals that are stored in large quantities in the body.  They are Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Phosphorus (P).

The second group is seven minerals in food that appear in trace amounts but whose importance has been well established.  They are Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iodine (I), Floride (F), Selenium (Se) and Chromium (Cr).
 
The third group are minerals in food, also in trace amounts, that have been proven to be important in lab animals but whose role in human nutrition and health has not be firmly proven.  They include Cobalt (Co), Molybdenum (Mo), Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni) plus a few others.

The nutritional use and source of these minerals in food are briefly discussed below according to their group classification.
There are 17 recognized essential minerals however there are several more minerals in food that may be important or may even be harmful as toxins, cadmium and mercury for example.  Only the 17 essential minerals are itemized below.

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Group One:  Minerals in Food
Stored in the Body

  • Calcium (Ca), provides the major part of the matrix structure of bone and for most people, that is its only purpose. There is much more to the calcium story. It is needed for coagulation of blood, it is vital for the excitability (activation) of nerves, allows the muscles to contract which means that the heart won't pump without calcium and it is a messenger for many secretory processes in the digestive system.

    It is also required for maintaining the integrity of the cell's membrane and keeping junctions between cells intact which is critical for absorption. These are all highly important functions and thus serum levels of calcium are precisely controlled. If external sources of calcium are not available, the body will requisition calcium from the bones.

    Natural food sources include dark leafy greens, broccoli, dairy products and yogurt (no surprise), oranges and asparagus. Absorption is the key to efficient utilization of calcium and requires vitamin D and a parathyroid hormone to ensure good absorption. Calcium is one of the most important of all minerals in food but it is important to know that it is absorbed better in some foods than others. Calcium in milk and diary products are easily absorbed but not so much in the green vegetables.

  • Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K): these essential minerals keep a couple of things in balance. Without phosphorus, the acid-base balance, called the pH factor, in our body would be out of kilter and our nerves, muscles and kidneys wouldn't work right. Without potassium, the water level in the body would be out of balance and couldn't regulate blood pressure. Phosphorus is found in most foods but dairy products, meat, and fish are particularly rich sources. Bananas have a reputation as being rich in potassium but in reality they are pretty far down the list. Foods containing a much higher content of potassium would be soy flour, fresh apricots, tomato puree, figs, raisins and wheat bran.
  • Magnesium (Mg) is a vitally important mineral in that it plays a part in muscle contraction, bone mineralization, energy metabolism and the transmission of nerve impulses. If that weren't enough, about 300 different enzymes depend on magnesium to perform their duties; particularly those that make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel that powers our body and those that assist in the construction of DNA and RNA.

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    In relation to bones, about 50% of our body's magnesium is stored in our bones with the rest residing in the cells of tissue and organs. Magnesium and Calcium work together as partners in that Mg enhances the absorption of Ca in the intestine. This wonderful mineral has also been used to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension.

    Another use for magnesium is in the mitigation of migraine headaches. For a very detailed discussion of Mg and migraines, go to http://www.help-for-migraines.com/magnesium-migraine.html.

    In general, green vegetables (those containing chlorophyll) will contain magnesium; for example just a half cup of cooked spinach contains 66mg of Mg. Wheatgrass is getting a lot of attention lately (see link above) in that it contains more than 90 minerals, including high concentrations of the most alkaline minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. If you are a "juicer" consider adding a teaspoon of wheatgrass powder to your concoction. Most people do not get enough Mg in their diets so supplementation is called for in many cases. If taken as a supplement, an upper limit of 350 mg/day has been established however, it is difficult, if not impossible, to get a magnesium overdose from food.

  • Sodium (Na)Sodium really plays the field; so important in so many ways. It's a key regulator in our bodies...regulates water balance, regulates flow of substances in and out of cells, and regulates blood pressure, electrical nerve signals and muscle contraction. Most of our sodium comes from normal table salt (NaCl); about one-third from the salt shaker. Another third we get from processed foods and the last third from the food itself.
    pHion is the category leader when it pertains to pH balancing of the body.

    Group 2: Trace Minerals in Food
    That are Proven to be Important

  • Copper (Cu) is one of the more important trace minerals in food. It is needed by enzymes that aid the absorption and release of iron from tissues and thus is important for hemoglobin production. Other uses include maintenance of blood vessels, tendons and bones; proper working of the central nervous system; pigmentation of hair and normal fertility. Large amounts of copper reside in the liver, brain, heart, spleen and kidneys.

    Copper is obtained from organ meats, shellfish, lamb, pork, tofu and nuts. Whole grain cereals, dairy products, lentils, mushrooms, dried beans, canned tomatoes, curry powder and chocolate are also great sources for copper.

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  • Chromium (Cr) is a cofactor of insulin meaning that it has to be present in order for insulin to do its job. It is abundant in the soil as chromite which is absorbed by plants but the form or availability of Chromium in specific plants is not generally known. Spices and brewers yeast contain the highest concentrations and meat, dairy products and eggs are also good sources.
  • Fluoride (F) makes us smile! It is needed for the growth of bone and enamel which protects us both from brittle bones and dental caries (cavities). Since most food is low in flouride, many communities fluoridate their municipal water supply. A few foods that are higher in flouride include tea, grape juice, sardines, fish and chicken.
  • Iodine (I) is familiar to most of us as that purple liquid that we put on cuts. But when we think iodine, we should think thyroid since it is primarily used for the production of thyroid hormone.

    The thyroid gland, kidneys, salivary and gastric glands all compete for free iodide. In fact the thyroid must trap about 60 ug of iodide per day to maintain thyroxine levels. Thyroxine is the major hormone excreted by the thyroid and function to increase the number and activity of mitochondria in cells by binding to the cells' DNA, increasing the basal metabolic rate.

    Thyroxine causes an increase in the rate of carbohydrate metabolism and a rise in the rate of protein synthesis and breakdown. Thus a deficiency of iodine can lead to major problems with our metabolism.

    When it comes to minerals in food, the iodine content of food (and water) is related to the iodine content of the soil. The primary food source is seafood but most people get adequate intakes of iodine from using iodized salt.

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  • Iron (Fe), out with old, in with the new. Did you know that every cell in our body has a programmed life span? The medical word for it is "apoptosis". Now forget it and never use it again. When the cell completes its job, it dies. Wouldn't it be a good idea to be able to replace all those dead cells. That's where iron comes in. Blood cells are pretty important to our well being and iron is critical to making new red cells and white blood cells in the immune system. Iron also promotes normal brain function. Hmm, maybe Congress could use a little more iron. There are two forms of dietary iron known as heme and non-heme and without going into detailed explanations, let's just say that the importance of which it is relates to absorption by the body. Heme iron is found only in meat, fish and poultry and is absorbed much more easily than non-heme iron, mostly found in fruits, vegetables, dried beans, nuts and grain products.
  • Selenium (Se) is one of the essential trace minerals in food and is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. As such it acts to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect membrances from oxidative damage. Selenium also forms complexes with heavy metals and can protect against cadmium and mercury toxicity.

    It has received a lot of attention for the prevention of prostate cancer but the evidence shows that the apparent benefit is limited to men with low basal plasma selenium and/or those who smoke.

    An upper limit of 400 ug per day has been set to avoid the possibility of selenium toxicity.

    The best sources are Brazil nuts and kidney although neither are common foods in most diets. Moderately good sources are fish, shellfish, organ meats and whole grains while fruits and vegetables are poor sources of selenium. Organic selenium minerals in food are absorbed best while inorganic is poorly absorbed. If supplementing with selenium, be sure to use a brand that is plant sourced.

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  • Zinc (Zn) is a powerhouse in the immune system and is present in more than 2000 enzymes involved in the digestive process. Research shows that a zinc deficiency causes a rapid decline in antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in both humans and animals.

    Seafood enriches the diet with a good source of zinc—an important element for immune health. World Port shown in the banner above is a good source of seafood delivered to your door. It is a division of Omaha Steaks after all.

    Zinc mainly comes from protein rich foods such as beef, lamb, pork, crab, turkey, chicken, lobster, clams and salmon. Vegans have to get their zinc from milk, cheese, yeast, peanuts, beans, whole grain cereals, brown rice, whole wheat bread, potato and yogurt. Even so, vegans would be wise to supplement for adequate zinc intake.

    Group 3: Trace Minerals in Food Whose Importance
    Has not been Clinically Proven

  • Cobalt (Co): keeps the red blood cells healthy and helps avoid anemia. Cobalt, like Copper, is obtained from whole grain cereals, shellfish, organ meats, fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts and poultry.
  • Manganese (Mn) and Molybdenum (Mo); these two work on various aspects of metabolism, which is making sure all the chemical reactions in the body work like they're supposed to. Manganese helps process blood sugar; makes DNA, connective tissue, cholesterol, and energy to help with brain function. Molybdenum helps fat burn and works to keep the liver, kidneys, teeth and bones healthy. Manganese and Molybdenum both come from green leafy vegetables, tea, whole grain cereals, beef liver, blackberries, lima beans, pinto beans and sweet potatoes.
  • Nickel (Ni) is a trace metal whose functions in the human body are not very clear. Nickel functions to activate or inhibit enzymes containing other elements and is involved in the production and action of some hormones. Some possible health benefits include support of growth, healthy skin and bone structure. It influences absorption of iron and may also play a role in production of red blood cells. Nickel is found in oatmeal, dried beans and peas, nuts, and chocolate.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances

    Before leaving the introductory page to minerals in food, it would be good to show what the government recommends as a Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for some of the minerals listed above. 

    A DRI isn't just one number, it is a set of guidelines that includes Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI) and Estimated Average Requirements (EAR); all segregated by age group, sex and lactation/pregnancy. 

    For our purposes, we will only give the RDA for some of the macro and trace minerals for male and female adults strictly to bring home how small the actual requirements really are. 

    Given the small amounts of dietary minerals we need, it becomes very easy to consume an excess of one or more minerals through supplementation. 

    An excess of particular minerals can create a host of collateral problems in absorption and bioavailability resulting in deficiencies and other issues that affect our homeostasis (balance in total bodily functions).

    The important point is that an "RDA is the average daily dietary intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in a group".  The key words here are "average" and "healthy".  

    The numbers will not apply to malnourished or sick people who will in all likelihood need to adjust their intakes depending on their medical condition with guidance from a qualified health provider.

    If anyone wants to study the tables developed and published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy's Institute of Medicine just click on DRI Tables and away you go.

    Recommended Dietary Allowances for 31 - 50 Year Old Adults

    Note that a mg is 1000th of a gram; a ug is one millionth of a gram.  There are 28.4 grams in an ounce so with many of these elements we are seeing some very, very small amounts.

    MineralRDA MalesRDA Females
    Calcium
    1000 mg/d
    1000 mg/d
    Chloride
    2.3 g/d
    2.3 g/d
    Chromium
    35 ug/d
    25 ug/d
    Copper
    900 ug/d
    900 ug/d
    FLoride
    4 mg/d
    3 mg/d
    Iodine
    150 ug/d
    150 ug/d
    Iron
    8 mg/d
    18 mg/d
    Magnesium
    420 mg/d
    320 mg/d
    Manganese
    2.3 mg/d
    1.8 mg/d
    Molybdenum
    45 ug/d
    45 ug/d
    Phosphorus
    700 mg/d
    700 mg/d
    Potassium
    4.7 g/d
    4.7 g/d
    Selenium
    55 ug/d
    55 ug/d
    Sodium
    1.5 g/d
    1.5 g/d
    Zinc
    11 mg/d
    8 mg/d

    We've Just Scratched the Surface of Minerals in Food

    That concludes our peek at the 17 essential minerals in food; and believe me, it was just a peek.  The physiology of minerals in the body is extremely complex with vast implications for our health. 

    In general, it is imperative that we supplement our diets with natural, plant sourced vitamins and minerals...but even this statement is too simplistic. 

    For example, as was mentioned above, iron from red meat (animal sources) is heme-iron.  Iron from vegetable sources is non-heme iron.  The source of the iron greatly affects how well it is absorbed in the body. 

    Animal sourced iron is readily absorbed but not so with plant sources.  As a general rule, plant sourced vitamins and minerals in food are superior for absorption but there are exceptions to every rule.

    >the next logical step in the study of essential nutrients is amino acids. However, before jumping to amino acids, be aware that a few of the minerals in food that were presented above have been singled out for more extensive coverage in separate pages. You can navigate to them by clicking on magnesium, selenium and zinc.


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